You’ve Got to Love Your Tree

by Hannah Meier

“Love Your Tree.” It’s a directive inspired by Eve Ensler, the writer and activist behind the one-woman play, The Good Body (you may also know her as the playwright for the wildly popular Vagina Monologues). “Love Your Tree” is also the foundation of a creative arts eating disorder prevention campaign that started at the The Center for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt in Maryland in 2006 and has since expanded nationally. Today, organizations across the country, including Massachusetts, are invited to participate in the 2018 campaign and submit artwork that illustrates body diversity, acceptance and positivity.

“Eve, look at that tree? Do you see that tree? Now, look at that tree (pointing to another one). Do you like that tree? Do you hate that tree ’cause it doesn’t look like that tree? Do you say that tree isn’t pretty ‘cause it doesn’t look like that tree? We’re all trees. You’re a tree. I’m a tree. You’ve got to love your body, Eve. You’ve got to love your tree.” (Excerpt from The Good Body, 2004 by Eve Ensler). 

In the Baltimore-based Center for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt, art therapy is a main component of recovery—helping patients approach body image struggles in a non-threatening way. Friedman alum, Christine Diven (Nutrition Communication, ‘12), assists with communications for the center where Julia Anderson, a Certified Eating Disorder Art Therapist created the Love Your Tree (LYT) Campaign in 2006. LYT is inspired by the metaphor in Ensler’s play, and is designed to cultivate an appreciation for the natural diversity of body sizes and help young people fight against society’s narrow and marginalizing standard of beauty and worth.

Love Your Tree Like a tree…my body is similar to no other. Lily D. Sudbrook Magnet Middle School 2016

As someone who personally struggled with an eating disorder that stemmed from dysmorphic body image throughout my childhood and adolescence, I emphatically understand how important it is to build an acceptance and appreciation of all bodies—especially in childhood. With increased attention drawn to childhood obesity and even weight loss in youth, establishing a sense of body trust and acceptance in childhood is of the utmost importance for educators today to prevent the development of eating disorders for these kids down the road.

What We Know About Eating Disorders

Unfortunately, research on eating disorders is anything but well-funded. Current statistics estimate that between 0.5 to 3.7 percent of American women suffer from anorexia nervosa at some point in their lifetime, and about 1 percent of female adolescents currently have anorexia[i]. Bulimia nervosa affects an estimated 1.1 to 4.2 percent of women in their lifetime. Binge-Eating Disorder, one of the most recently codified eating disorders in the diagnostic manual for psychiatric illnesses, is the most common, affecting 3.5 percent % of women and 2 percent of men in the United States, according to the latest statistics[ii].

Clearly, these numbers are conservative, and they do not account for the millions of individuals who may suffer from disordered eating but do not meet one or more of the required criteria for a clinical diagnosis. These numbers also assume that those with eating disorders seek treatment, which is sadly not always the case. Also worth noting, most of our understanding of eating disorders comes from research conducted on women, since anorexia and bulimia are traditionally perceived to affect women more than men; however, men are no less likely to suffer from eating disorders[iii].

Dieting and disordered eating often come back to poor body image or a desire to alter one’s body to better fit societal norms, putting thinness above real physical health. Results from a  2008 Canadian study found that 40% of Canadian girls in tenth grade and 37% of girls in ninth grade thought of themselves as “too fat,” and 19% of those with a normal BMI considered themselves to be overweight. Twelve percent of those with a normal BMI admitted to trying to lose weight[iv].

All Different, All One
Like a tree, my body…is unique and part of a whole. Melissa B. Bel Air High School 2017

Body dissatisfaction has a lot of other negative effects on kids and teens beyond increasing the risk for developing eating disorders. Some studies have shown that when students feel badly about their bodies, their GPAs are likely to be lower than students who don’t feel badly about themselves. And while we might think these types of issues arise in adolescence, body dissatisfaction and body anxiety may begin as young as second grade across varying racial and ethnic backgrounds, in both boys and girls.

How does Love Your Tree fight back?

According to current program director Brianna Garrold, the LYT campaign is currently in its 12th year. It was originally structured for middle and high school students in the Baltimore and surrounding area, but now reaches outside the state with organizations in New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Schools and organizations that host programs invite students to submit artwork representing their response to the Tree metaphor.

The campaign is even expanding overseas and across age groups. “In 2014, an organization in Australia picked up the message and contacted the creator of the program for more information about LYT and tips for hosting their own show and awards ceremony,” Garrold explained. “Over the years, Love Your Tree has expanded to include college students, and as of 2016, kindergarten and elementary-aged students. LYT has also started branching out beyond school-based workshops and into community organizations as well.”

Just Beginning “Like a Tree…I am full of so much potential.” Katherine H (Dulaney Middle School) 2015 

For school participants and eating disorder patients alike, the metaphor of a tree helps to explore healthy body image and self-image in a non-threatening way. According to Garrold, art therapy often feels “easier and safer” for participants than other approaches.

What are the common risk factors we can focus on to prevent eating disorders?

Garrold points to the biopsychosocial model of development—an understanding that biological, psychological and social factors all can play key roles in determining whether someone will develop an eating disorder.

“Unfortunately, we live in a society that is comparative, image focused, and perfectionism driven—all things that fall under the ‘social’ part. Body dissatisfaction and body anxiety are beginning at younger ages due to exposure to these messages, and as our society becomes more connected and ‘plugged in,’ it is getting seemingly harder to ignore them,” she says. Frequently, comparison to peers and media influence are major factors that contribute to the development of low self-esteem and poor body image.

“It can feel like an uphill battle to help reach out and provide support for kids,” Garrold admits.  “Keeping an eye out for warning signs, like social withdrawal, critical or comparative comments about or related to peers or celebrities, fixation on being ‘the best’ or feeling the need to be perfect, [and] fixation with weight or food can offer insight into areas kids and teens might be struggling with.”

“Body of a Tree”
Like a tree…my body is as healthy as it can be.
Ethan S. (Pine Grove Middle School) 2015

What can we do in Massachusetts to get involved?

Garrold invites those of us outside of Maryland to participate as an out-of-state chapter, especially if we work with students or young adults. “Outreach programs like Love Your Tree are designed to combat negative messages by educating students about the effects of the media on self-esteem and body image. Allowing space and time for conversation around topics like body image can be empowering for students […] and providing education about media literacy (understanding some of the dynamics of advertising, [and] the use of photo alteration programs) is a great topic to include as well.”

Even if we can’t fully participate fully in LYT, the website offers resources and support, and Garrold stresses that the most important part is to help kids feel like they have someone to talk to and activities to engage in. She recommends the online gallery at www.loveyourtree.org to spark the conversation.

“Our culture seems to spend a lot of time discussing criticism and flaws and not enough time discussing successes and positive attributes. Encouraging kids and teens to get involved in activities they enjoy, engage with peers, feel comfortable and safe enough to explore their talents, and celebrate what makes each individual unique are all ways we can help foster healthier students, which in turn, fosters healthier communities. The hope is that starting on a small scale will snowball into larger messages of healthy self-esteem and body acceptance.”

Bringing it back to Friedman

As part of a school focused on nutrition science and policy, we are well aware of the health challenges our nation faces, and the role proper nutrition can play. Decades of research associating overweight and obesity with increased risk for disease and lower quality of life has called us to lead the crusade for health—to prevent or reduce overweight and obesity by empowering individuals and communities to prioritize nutrition and its downstream health benefits. We know that obesity and disease disparately affect those of low socioeconomic status, and understand that it takes a multi-pronged intervention to make a dent in reshaping a community.

“Love Every Tree, Love Every Body
Like a tree…my body is unique and beautiful.
Amelia R. (Patterson Mill High School) 2015

But have we been paying enough attention to weight stigma? The American Academy of Pediatrics very recently released a policy statement about weight stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity, which is a must-read for anyone working with this population (likely all of us, in some regard). In it, they point out that weight stigma is widely tolerated because our society believes it will motivate people to lose weight, despite its counterproductive contribution to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services decreased physical activity and ultimate accelerated weight gain over time[v].

Instead of focusing on reversing weight gain trends, perhaps we should focus on reversing the plague of weight stigma. Health behaviors exist outside of body mass index, and focusing wholeheartedly on weight has proven to be undeniably ineffective, and perhaps harmful, in cultivating healthy behavior change[vi],[vii],[viii].

As Garrold encourages, “helping establish a healthy (or healthier) self-image is essential to prevention of and recovery from eating disorders.” Everyone can benefit from feeling more connected to and proud of their body.

If you are interested in getting involved in the Love Your Tree campaign, visit www.loveyourtree.org for more information. The 2017-2018 campaign is NOW OPEN and accepting poster submissions from students of all ages. Visit the website to view past submissions and learn how to submit an entry.

Hannah Meier is a Registered Dietitian, second year Nutrition Communications student, aspiring eating disorder specialist and an advocate for healthcare that does not stigmatize based on weight. Her favorite ways to honor her body include twisting and balancing in yoga poses and wearing extra soft pajamas as often as possible.

Resources

[i] The Renfrew Center Foundation for Eating Disorders, Eating Disorders 101 Guide: A Summary of Issues, Statistics and Resources, 2003.

[ii] Hudson, J., Hiripi, E., Pope, H., & Kessler, R. (2007) “The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication.” Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348–358.

[iii] Strother, E., Lemberg, R., Stanford, S. C., & Turberville, D. (2012). Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood. Eating Disorders, 20(5), 346–355. http://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2012.715512

[iv] Boyce, W. F., King, M. A. & Roche, J. (2008). Healthy Living and Healthy Weight. In Healthy Settings for Young People in Canada.

[v] Pont, S. J., Puhl, R., Cook, S. R., & Slusser, W. (2017). Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity. Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2017/11/16/peds.2017-3034.abstract

[vi] Thompson JK, Stice E. Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2001;10(5):181-3.

[vii] Pelletier LG, Dion SC, Slovinec-D’Angelo M, Reid R. Why do you regulate what you eat? Relationships between forms of regulation, eating behaviors, sustained dietary behavior change, and psychological adjustment. Motivation and Emotion. 2004;28(3):245-77

[viii] Bacon L, Stern JS, Van Loan MD, Keim NL. Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2005;105(6):929-36.

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Friedman Goes to FNCE

by Hannah Meier, Sharmin Sampat and Anabelle Harari

Every year in October, dietitians from across America gather together at a convention for three days of learning, networking, and eating. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics organizes the national event, The Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo (or FNCE® for short), bringing together registered dietitians (RDs), dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs), students, interns, researchers, physicians, policy makers and industry leaders to talk about current practices, care guidelines, controversies, innovation and entrepreneurship in nutrition. Three current students from Friedman, Hannah Meier, Anabelle Harari and Sharmin Sampat share their highlights.

October 21-24, 2017 marked the 100-year centennial anniversary of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ organized advocacy and support for the profession. Highlights include not only interesting educational sessions put together by seasoned experts (including Friedman’s own Dr. Tim Griffin in a talk about Sustainability and Dietary Guidelines), but booth after booth in the expo hall of health foods, supplements, schools and services relevant to the practices of nutrition professionals. Attendees of the conference and expo can network with brands, media, and fellow professionals at sponsored events or practice group receptions before and after each organized day within the program. Each day also features special events like culinary demonstrations, book signings, and poster presentations of research conducted by dietitians across the country.

Photo: Hannah Meier

More details of the event and program can be found on the conference website: eatrightfnce.org.

Hannah Meier

Why did you choose to go to FNCE this year?

I knew I wanted to attend FNCE in Chicago after attending my first conference when it was in Boston last year. I learned so much at the sessions and enjoyed getting to know the people behind some of the popular and up-and-coming food and nutrition brands at the expo. This year, I was fortunate to be able to attend the conference on behalf of the food company I work with, 88 Acres. Instead of hosting an expo booth, we organized a get-together with two other New England brands, DrinkMaple and Biena, and were able to network with dietitians and media contacts more personally.

What was your favorite Education Session?

My favorite education session was actually a career panel about pursuing “hot” career paths in nutrition. We learned from dietitians who forged their way into roles that may not have existed previously, and it was inspiring to hear from them about how to balance confidence and work ethic while ensuring that you still love your career at the end of the day. Dawn Jackson-Blatner, the RD for the Chicago Cubs and one of the panelists has also been featured in top media outlets and on the reality show My Diet is Better than Your Diet (which she won!).

What was your favorite new product at the Expo?

As funny and unglamorous as this seems, my favorite product was from Starkist: Pouches of tuna with rice and beans in hot sauce. Since working with student athletes at Tufts in Medford, I’ve learned the importance of convenience when it comes to managing nutrition with a busy schedule, and it’s my goal to recommend whole foods as much as possible as opposed to convenient snack bars and shakes (though these can be great in a pinch and certainly better than nothing). The packs of tuna with rice and beans combine a high-quality source of protein with fiber-rich grains for carbohydrates, and make an excellent, portable post-workout or game snack—or something to bring with you during a busy day of back-to-back classes. The packs even contain a portable fork that can be reused!

Favorite quote of Anabelle, overheard at FNCE

Did you find any new food and nutrition trends that surprised you?

The rise of plant-based foods was prevalent on the expo floor, though it didn’t necessarily surprise me. The breadth of options featuring plant proteins from hemp seeds to pea protein included ice cream, milks, chips, and cereals. It is clear that there is a demand for more plant-focused alternatives to animal products and food companies are responding in creative ways!

What was the most controversial topic you saw?

I attended an educational session about weight bias in healthcare settings and felt an immediate divergence among RD’s in the audience about defining and treating obesity. The presenters reflected on the importance of ensuring that we do not use shameful, dehumanizing or assumptive approaches to treating and preventing obesity on the policy level, but argued that we cannot focus only on prevention and leave out those who still struggle with obesity as a disease. During the question and answer segment at the end of the talk, one dietitian presented the idea that obesity might not need to be approached as a disease and rather as a descriptor of size, and that we turn our focus away from managing “weight” and more to managing health behaviors. I have been personally interested in learning more about weight-neutral approaches to nutrition and adopting an evidence-based Health at Every Size framework for practice, looking at metabolic indicators as opposed to BMI as primary outcomes for health. As encouraging as it was to see medical professionals talking about reducing weight bias in health care, the debate goes on about the best way to “treat”, reduce, and prevent obesity in the long-term, and whether or not it should really be considered a disease whatsoever.

How has your understanding of food and nutrition changed since going to FNCE?

I am encouraged, yet a little overwhelmed with the potential we have as nutrition professionals to not only shape the health trajectory of our nation, but of the globe. I appreciated the wide array of niche areas in which dietitians across the country choose to specialize, and am reminded that this is a field that can benefit from all types of thinkers, movers and shakers. I think we are at a time where collaboration is critical, and changes need to be made both with small, individual steps on the ground and with large steps on the level of policy via food industry collaboration.

Hannah is a second-year Nutrition Communication student and registered dietitian. This was her second FNCE, and her first that she attended on behalf of 88 Acres. She enjoyed networking with other professionals and ironically ended up craving a lot of fruits and vegetables at the end of the conference after sampling protein bar after protein bar in the expo.

 

Favorite quote of Sharmin, overheard at FNCE

Anabelle Harari

Why did you choose to go to FNCE this year?

I was really interested in learning about the latest nutrition research, meet fellow nutrition students from around the country, and network with some brands that I love.

What was your favorite Education Session?

My favorite education session was a toss-up between a talk on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and navigating different career paths in nutrition. There were so many interesting and inspiring sessions, it was really difficult to choose which to attend! Luckily, all of the sessions were recorded and can be watched later.

What was your favorite new product at the Expo?

Love the new Triple Cream Chocolate Siggi’s yogurt and the Vital Protein Matcha Collagen that comes out in a few months. Both really delicious.

Did you find any new food and nutrition trends that surprised you?

There were a lot of bars, but that did not really surprise me. I saw a bunch of companies using sprouts, grains, and of course countless protein shakes.

What was the most controversial topic you saw?

Weight Stigma in Healthcare, Communities and Policy—this session challenged people to be careful with public health messaging around obesity, stigmatizing patients with obesity, and being considerate of the language we use as professionals.

How has your understanding of food and nutrition changed since going to FNCE?

I think there is a lot of exciting changes in biotech that will influence the food and nutrition profession. There were several DNA and microbiome testing companies at the Expo as well as a fascinating session on nutrigenomics. I think as the science advances, we’re seeing more personalized nutrition, people wanting to know very specific information, and also tailoring nutrition recommendations to each person based on their unique genetic information.

Anabelle is in her third year completing the MS-DPD program with a concentration in Nutrition Communications and Behavior Change. When she’s not in class, you can find her in the kitchen creating delicious and healthy recipes for her blog, Local Belle. Check her out on Instagram for inspiring recipes and nutrition tips: @localbelle 

2

Favorite quote heard by Sharmin, originally attributed to Eleanor Roosevelt

Sharmin Sampat

Why did you choose to go to FNCE this year?

This was my first FNCE conference. I am glad and grateful I got a chance to attend as a student host volunteer, a position I had applied for early on. As a volunteer, I was stationed at the Silent Auction area and helped with registering items for the auction. It was a excellent opportunity to network and connect with people with various backgrounds in nutrition. I had heard a lot about FNCE during my internship at EatingWell Magazine and how amazing it is to attend the best annual event in the nutrition field. I also wanted to take the opportunity to go to the student internship fair and gain insights about the programs I plan to apply to for my Dietetic Internship next year.

What was your favorite Education Session?

My favorite session was Sport Supplement: Facts, Noise and Wishful-thinking. It talked about how the sport nutrition market accounts for $30 billion U.S. dollars and rising—but unfortunately, it’s a market backed with little scientific evidence. It also shed light on how athletes consume ineffective supplementation to improve their health/stamina. I was surprised to find out that 1 out of 10 supplements that are purchased over the internet contain substances that fail a drug test. The Speaker also briefly gave some cues for reducing risks associated with supplements. In addition, I noticed how social media was also a big part of the sessions at FNCE. As Anabelle noted, I too had a hard time deciding which sessions to attend.

What was your favorite new product at the Expo?

I thoroughly enjoyed the KIND fruit bites, which are bite-size snacks made of real fruit. They claim to have no juice, concentrate, or preservatives—just real fruit. I must admit I found them tasty and interesting.

Did you find any new food and nutrition trends that surprised you?

Though not surprising, I found a lot of focus on fiber, functional foods: foods that have positive effects on the body other than basic nutrition; like a company named Beneo introduced chicory root fibers, a digestible fiber, in their products to improve gut health. There were also sessions that focused on gut health and gut microbiota.

Favorite quote of Hannah, overheard at FNCE

What was the most controversial topic you saw?

I attended a session on agriculture and its links to healthy eating patterns. One topic that was discussed at length in this session was Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). The speaker addressed how different countries have varying viewpoints on GMOs, which influences their policy making. I think GMO, in general, is a very controversial topic and as noted by the speaker, Dr. John Erdman, an emotional one too!

How has your understanding of food and nutrition changed since going to FNCE?

I think FNCE has been a insightful experience and made me realise how nutrition and its related fields can make such a great impact, not only on an individual but also on governments and countries. There is immense and extensive research in the field of nutrition that is taking place right now. It was overwhelming and inspiring at the same time, and it makes me grateful to be a part of this field.

Sharmin is a 2nd year student at Friedman School of Nutrition, majoring in Nutrition Interventions, Communications, and Behavior Change. She is also completing her coursework at Simmons College to become a Registered Dietitian.

 

 

 

Candy-Ween

by Hannah Meier

Dressing up, carving pumpkins, ringing doorbells, staying up late, gorging on candy. Halloween traditions are well-beloved in the United States, and reminisced upon fondly by even the most educated nutrition students in the Boston area. But with sugar in the spotlight of contemporary public health interventions, is it time to reconsider our chocolate-coated hallows ‘eve habit?

Hannah and her younger brother Adam in matching, handmade leopard costumes

I liked to sort my candy by type, color, and preference. Each Halloween, I would make my rounds to every house with lights on in my suburban Minnesota neighborhood. I’d ring countless doorbells and gleefully chant, “trick or treat!” alongside my costumed friends, while grown-ups scooped candy by the handful into our open pillowcases. I would relish the end of the night, coming home and dumping the pounds of fresh candy onto a wide space of open floor, sorting the Milk Duds (a personal favorite) into their own pile and relegating Now & Laters, Licorice and Butterfingers into the pile of not-so-greats that I’d probably try to trade for more Milk Duds from my brother later.

The dumping and sorting of Halloween candy was a well-loved tradition

For me, candy was a given on Halloween. Sure, there were houses that we’d visit that would hand out fruit snacks or granola bars, and I usually ended up with at least one toothbrush. But these “treats” held hardly as much excitement. My parents allowed my brother and I to keep all our candy, but we were normally held to 2-3 pieces as treats per day, max.

Fast forward 20 or so years, and I not only survived 10 years of tick-or-treating in good health, I’m now in a position of relative influence in the world of nutrition. I’ve learned enough about food to know that candy provides little more to our bodies’ cells than some quick energy and easy calories. Some would argue there are properties within candy, like added sugar, that are harmful to our bodies. I would argue that most people have nothing to worry about if candy is left as a once-in-a-while food (even a once-a-day treat). Looking at the bigger picture of overall diet is more telling. Even though most candy contains negligible amounts of micronutrients, will our bodies really know whether we ate two Snickers® fun size® bars or a Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough Larabar®, give or take a few grams of fiber? I do not have an answer to that question, but I can tell you, without a doubt, that my mother would not have payed twice the price for pulverized cashews and dates.

used for comparison based on weight and likelihood of use as a Halloween candy

Now, I’m not anti-Larabar®, and recognize that if we were to compare ingredient lists, one would be a clear winner. Of course, I’m not comparing a Snickers® bar to an apple, a bag of trail mix, or popcorn—all options that would clearly be less-processed, more wholesome snacks. I’m comparing a Snickers® bar to a reasonable cousin—one that also provides the satisfaction of unwrapping a crinkly wrapper—yet happens to be expensive and out of reach for most. It’s worth taking a step back and considering whether the battle to promote “healthier” Halloween treats really holds up – we shouldn’t be relying on candy or snack bars like Larabar® for micronutrients, anyway.

Still, it’s hard to find the Halloween candy tradition benign when considering our current food environment, which makes eating large portions of highly processed foods in a fairly mindless way all too convenient and affordable every day. Holiday traditions put a spotlight on food industry favorites, and Halloween is the king of them all. Unlike food traditions surrounding holidays like Thanksgiving, Christmas, Hanukkah and Rosh Hashanah, Halloween is all about the candy.

Trick-or-treating and candy-giving on Halloween rolled out in the United States as a fully-fledged tradition in the 1950s, alongside Wonderbread® and CocaCola®. Packaged candy was cemented as a Halloween staple during the 70’s when folks feared razor blades in apples, Samira Kawash suggests in a 2010 article in The Atlantic. Since then, Americans have taken hold of the sugar habit, purchasing upwards of 600 million pounds of candy a year for Halloween, and 90 million pounds of chocolate during the week of Halloween alone according to a Neilsen report from 2009. That’s about one pound and 3.2 ounces of chocolate per child in the United States purchased in one week.

Talk about added sugar.

The most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, along with proposed updates to the FDA Nutrition Facts Panel, pinpoint 50 grams of added sugar as the suggested daily intake for an average adult based on a 2000 Calorie diet pattern. One pound and 3.2 ounces of milk chocolate contains about 543 grams of sugar, which averages out to over 75 grams of sugar per day if consumed in one week. And that’s just chocolate—add in sugar from other foods like yogurt, baked goods, sauces and dressings, and the scales are tipped firmly in the direction of “excess.”

So, what are we supposed to do about it?

According to an informal survey of Friedman students, a majority (64%) believe that handing out Halloween candy neither helps nor hurts public health nutrition policy, and only 55% do not believe it is our responsibility as nutrition professionals to shift our current candy-centric Halloween culture.

“Holidays are unique and have anticipated traditions that vary by family and culture,” one Friedman student responded. America just happens to have a love affair with sugar on Halloween.

But of course, Halloween candy is not the only thing contributing to chronic disease. Another student argued, “Blaming candy is like saying if we want to prevent house fires we should outlaw matches.”

Moderation was a signature theme of survey responses. “Every holiday doesn’t require candy and sweets, but it provides a good opportunity to discuss with children the importance of moderation and sharing,” one student suggested.

While I agree that moderation is a key message, and that foods like candy (or ice cream, or brownies) can indeed be incorporated into an overall health-promoting diet when approached without guilt or stress, does fixating on treats at holidays like Halloween (and Christmas, and Easter, and Valentine’s Day) really send that message? Would we be so obsessed with candy on Halloween if we weren’t constantly trying to avoid it the rest of the year?

To help make your decision—will you or won’t you participate in passing out candy to kids this Halloween?—let’s refer to my favorite decision-making tool: the Pros vs. Cons list.

 

PROS

CONS
Candy is cheap, usually on sale, and comes in many varieties Look at the ingredients list… if you dare
But chocolate has antioxidants, right? Have you ever babysat a kid who ate candy for dinner?
Dentists need more business, it’s good for the economy. Candy may be cheap, but fillings are expensive.
More likely to be viewed as a “cool house” for handing out candy. If no one comes to your door, you can wear pajamas and go to bed early.
Leftover candy

Leftover candy

 

While over 95% of Friedman students surveyed enjoy eating candy on Halloween, only 53% of them plan to hand out sweet treats to costumed kiddos this year. Most who aren’t participating in the tradition reported not having Trick-or-Treaters stepping up to their doors. Others said they would be handing out granola bars, nuts (allergies are a whole other topic worth considering on Halloween), or non-food items like stickers.

Most folks passing out candy are going with fun size bars or “whatever’s cheapest.” My building is one that will likely not be visited by young tricksters looking for treats, but if it were, I’d pick up a big bag of fun size pretzel M&Ms® (because they offer the best of both worlds) and ask every kid their name. Like one insightful second-year student added “Halloween is a great opportunity to get to know neighbors and give personal attention to your community.”

Thanks to all the Friedman students and alumni who filled out the unofficial survey and offered thoughtful and creative responses! It’s clear we can improve our Halloween traditions, but that doesn’t necessarily mean we need to do away with candy altogether.

*Statistics based on a voluntary Facebook-linked google survey of 45 Friedman students and alumni in September, 2107

Hannah Meier is a registered dietitian, second-year Nutrition Communications student, foodie, and festivity nerd. She believes in the power of food as both an instrument for health and community, and strives to make nourishing options as accessible and convenient as possible for all. You can find her on Instagram @abalancedpaceRD and Twitter @hannahrosemeier.

From Soil to Sport: Sweet Potatoes to Power You

by Hannah Meier

As the temperatures slowly, and not so consistently, increase in Boston this spring, more of us will find ourselves out in the field, on the trails, or on the sidewalks soaking in the sunshine and working up a sweat. Even if you aren’t competitive, you have probably noticed the difference in how you feel during, and after, exercise when you are—or are not—properly fueled. Look no further for easy and delicious recipes to power your active spring using the grad student’s pantry staple: The sweet potato!

 

Photo: Hannah Meier

Photo: Hannah Meier

Feeling our best, and performing our best (who wants to be that person in a soccer game to miss a pass because you’re too fatigued to run for the ball?) is contingent on having the right amount of fuel to use for energy during activity. Nutrition beforehand is important to power your workout or game, and nutrition afterward is crucial for making physical improvement, gaining strength and replenishing tired tissues. Sure, you may be able to get through a game or a run without thinking about nutrition, but I bet you a million bucks (really) that you’ll make strides with appropriate nutrition.

 

Sweet potatoes come close to what I view as an athlete’s ultimate food. Rich in carbohydrates and easy on the stomach, they provide a spectrum of nutrients that help convert calories to available energy for our cells (ex. B-Vitamins), along with a generous amount of potassium, which is an essential electrolyte for heart and muscle function that can be lost in sweat. One medium (about 5” long) sweet potato provides 10% of the daily value for iron, which is a nutrient of concern for many athletes, especially women. Compared to white potatoes, orange sweet potatoes are rich in Vitamin A as beta-carotene, and provide more of the vitamin than a cup of carrots. Why should athletes or active people care about Vitamin A? During exercise, our tissues can become damaged and more prone to forming free radicals, especially in long, intense endurance training. Beta-carotene, as a powerful antioxidant, combats this free radical formation, keeping cell membranes better intact and less prone to destruction.

What about fiber? While sweet potatoes, like many vegetables, contribute to an adequate fiber intake, the average potato contains about 4 grams of fiber, mostly from the skin. This amount of fiber helps to slow down digestion enough to prevent sharp spikes in blood sugar. This keeps both our hunger and our cells satisfied, with sustained energy for hours. Athletes or competitors looking for a snack to eat less than an hour prior to their event could remove the skin to avoid the digestive slow-down that fiber provides. Many of the nutrients are found in the flesh of the potato, so removing the skin does not take away all the nutritional benefit of the tuber.

Since sweet potatoes offer a powerhouse of beneficial nutrients for exercise, I came up with four ways to dress them up before and after a workout. Feel free to use regular white potatoes or even purple potatoes. All potatoes provide a mix of nutrients valuable for exercise, but the darker the color, the more concentrated the antioxidants you’ll get. These recipes use medium sweet potatoes that were roasted in the oven for about 45 minutes at 375˚F. Just wrap each potato in foil, place on a baking sheet, and throw in a hot oven. They are ready when they are slightly soft to the poke of a fork.

 

Before Exercise

Before exercise, the goal of nutrition is to provide a boost of fuel for your muscles to burn for energy. While glycogen, the stored form of carbohydrate, is typically available, having full stores is crucial if you plan to exercise for longer than 2 hours. Even for shorter events, providing a boost of nutrition leading up to your workout can stimulate better performance. Combining carbohydrate sources with protein increases the satiety factor and provides your body a boost in amino acids to have available for protein re-synthesis.

Pre-Race Burrito

Inspired by many athlete’s favorite pre-race meal, the burrito bowl, this sweet potato highlights traditional burrito ingredients, which happen to be wonderfully rich in carbohydrate. This meal is a bit fiber-heavy thanks to the beans, so should be consumed at least 3 hours before exercise, or the night before an early start. The corn sauce is a recipe adapted from food blogger Pinch of Yum, and breaks down the corn’s fibrous coating so the carbohydrates are more easily available to be absorbed. Peppers and onions contain natural sugars that provide quick energy and delicious sweetness, as well as an additional boost of antioxidants. A little bit of Greek yogurt rounds out the potato with a bit of easily digested protein.

  

Photo: Hannah Meier

Photo: Hannah Meier

 

Makes 1 Serving

INGREDIENTS

  • One medium – large sweet potato, baked
  • 2 Tablespoons corn sauce (recipe below)
  • 1/4 Cup black beans, cooked or canned
  • ¼ Medium red pepper, sliced
  • ¼ Medium Onion, sliced
  • Salsa
  • Plain Greek yogurt of choice

Total Time (after baking potato) 10 minutes

DIRECTIONS

  • Cut baked sweet potato in half, lengthwise and set aside (reheating if necessary). Mash the flesh with a fork.
  • In a pan with a little oil, sauté the pepper and onion slices on medium heat until desired softness.
  • Top sweet potato with onions and peppers, black beans, corn sauce, salsa and Greek yogurt.
  • Enjoy!

CORN SAUCE RECIPE

Inspired by Pinch of Yum

Makes about 8 Servings (2 tablespoons each)

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 cup corn kernels, from fresh or frozen (I used Trader Joe’s frozen Fire Roasted Corn)
  • 1 tablespoon fresh garlic
  • 1/2 cup water, milk, or broth (I used almond milk)
  • 1 tablespoon butter or olive oil

Total Time: 15 minutes

DIRECTIONS

  • Heat the butter or olive oil in a pan over medium heat.
  • Sauté garlic until fragrant. Add the milk and stir to form a creamy mixture.
  • Add corn kernels and sauté for another 5-10 minutes until very soft.
  • Transfer to a blender or food processor and puree until very smooth.

 

After Exercise

After exercise, along with hydration, the primary goals with nutrition are to provide your muscle cells with a replenishing dose of carbohydrate to store as glycogen, and amino acids from protein to aid in muscle tissue repair and growth. The post-exercise meal is also a chance to load up on vitamins and minerals that keep body processes functioning normally at the higher intensity that exercise demands.

Sweet Recovery

For those with more of a sweet tooth, sweet potatoes are a nourishing way to satisfy it. This sweet potato is topped with dark berries, rich in polyphenol antioxidants and natural sugars to reach muscles quickly. Almond butter provides a bit of protein and salt, which is an electrolyte athletes need to replace after very sweaty workouts. Full fat ricotta cheese rounds out the potato with easily digested dairy protein and a bit of satiating fat, without the overpowering taste and extra sugar that yogurt provides. Feel free to substitute more nuts and seeds for the cheese to make this vegan.

Photo: Hannah Meier

Photo: Hannah Meier

Makes 1 Serving

INGREDIENTS

  • One medium – large sweet potato, baked
  • 1/2 cup mixed berries of choice (aim for dark, bright colors; I used a frozen berry blend, thawed)
  • 1 tablespoon salted almond butter
  • 2 tablespoons ricotta cheese

Total Time (after baking potato): 5 minutes

DIRECTIONS

  • Cut baked sweet potato in half, lengthwise and set aside (reheating if necessary). Mash the flesh with a fork.
  • Top with berries, almond butter and ricotta cheese.
  • Enjoy!

 

Savory Recovery

For those of us who don’t crave sweet things post-workout, a sweet potato can still provide a canvas for a savory meal. This potato provides a rich carbohydrate base to refuel muscles and serves as the base for protein powerhouse eggs and hemp seeds, plus red cabbage and carrots for extra antioxidants and avocado for healthy fats. Top with hot sauce if desired—especially if you got sweaty and need to replace lost sodium.

Photo: Hannah Meier

Photo: Hannah Meier

 

Makes 1 Serving

INGREDIENTS

  • One medium – large sweet potato, baked
  • 1 large egg
  • 1/2 – 1 cup shredded red cabbage (I used a Trader Joe’s bagged mix)
  • 1/3 of a medium avocado, sliced or mashed
  • 1 tablespoon hemp seeds (or sunflower seeds)

Total Time (after baking potato): 10 minutes

DIRECTIONS

  • Cut baked sweet potato in half, lengthwise and set aside (reheating if necessary). Mash the flesh with a fork.
  • Whisk the egg well in a bowl, making sure to incorporate lots of air for a fluffier texture.
  • In a pan with a little oil over medium heat, sauté the cabbage until soft. When cooked, push cabbage to the side of pan to make room for the scrambled egg.
  • Spray the pan with a bit of cooking spray to prevent sticking, and add the whisked egg to the pan. Scramble the egg until cooked through.
  • Top sweet potato with cooked cabbage and scrambled egg, avocado, and hemp seeds.
  • Enjoy!

 

Rest Day

Everyone needs a day off to let the body truly recover, fully top off glycogen stores, and repair damaged tissues. Despite being often overlooked in terms of sports nutrition, rest days are an important opportunity to supply your body with nutrients in high-demand. So do some yoga stretching, cook up this Buddha Bowl inspired potato and go to bed early—your body needs it!

Yoga Night Buddha

This is a meal full of plant-based power. As always, the potato is a base rich in Vitamin A and is topped with a trio of steamed broccoli, carrots and edamame that provide their own chorus of plant chemicals (phytochemicals), vitamins, minerals, and even protein (broccoli and edamame are some of the higher-protein vegetables). Tempeh (fermented soy) is the primary protein source of the meal, and is ideal for rest days when quick digestion is not necessarily the goal. Likewise, plant proteins are broken down more slowly in our bodies than animal proteins and reach muscles at a slower rate. Finally, a delicious peanut sauce brings the dish together with the unsaturated fat our body needs to absorb many of the ingredients’ fat-soluble nutrients.

Photo: Hannah Meier

Photo: Hannah Meier

 

Makes 1 Serving

INGREDIENTS

  • One medium – large sweet potato, baked
  • 1/2 Cup Broccoli, steamed
  • 1 small carrots, sliced or shredded (about 1/4 cup)
  • 1/4 Cup edamame, fresh or frozen
  • 1/4 Block Tempeh, sliced
  • Peanut sauce (recipe below)

Total time (after baking potato, including peanut sauce): 15 minutes

DIRECTIONS

  • Cut baked sweet potato in half, lengthwise and set aside (reheating if necessary). Mash the flesh with a fork.
  • In a steamer or pan with just enough water to cover the bottom, add broccoli, carrots, and edamame and steam until cooked through to desired softness.
  • In a pan with a little oil over medium heat, sear tempeh slices for ~2 minutes on each side, until cooked through.
  • Meanwhile, make peanut sauce (recipe below).
  • Top potato with steamed veggies, edamame, and peanut sauce.
  • Enjoy!

Makes 1 Serving

PEANUT SAUCE INGREDIENTS

  • 1 Tablespoon peanut butter
  • 1 Teaspoon rice vinegar
  • 1 Teaspoon reduced sodium soy sauce or liquid aminos
  • 1 Teaspoon water
  • ½ Tablespoon honey
  • Optional additions: ground ginger, red pepper flakes, garlic powder

DIRECTIONS

  • In a liquid measuring cup or bowl, whisk ingredients together until well blended. If the peanut butter is very thick, you may need to add more water to thin out the mixture.
  • Season to your taste. Add ginger for a bit of sweetness, red pepper flakes for heat, or garlic powder to make it more savory.

 

Hannah Meier is a registered dietitian and second-year student in the Nutrition Interventions, Communication and Behavior Change program at Friedman. She works one-on-one with undergraduate Jumbo athletes and sports teams at Tufts University, educating them on fueling for their best performance and mastering the fundamentals of nutrition for an active life.

5 Reasons the Whole30 is Not the Anti-Diet It Claims to Be

by Hannah Meier, RD, LDN

How does the Whole30 Diet hold up from a dietitian’s perspective? Hannah Meier breaks it down.

I’m calling it: 2017 is the year of the non-diet.

As a dietitian who ardently discourages short-term dieting, I was thrilled to read many articles posted around the new year with titles like “Things to Add, Not Take Away in 2017,” and “Why I’m Resolving Not to Change This Year.” Taking a step more powerful than simply abstaining from resolution season, influencers like these authors resolved to embrace the positive, stay present, and not encourage the cycle of self-loathing that the “losing weight” resolutions tend to result in year after year.

Right alongside these posts, though, was an overwhelming amount of press exonerating the Whole30—a 30-day food and beverage “clean eating” diet.

The founders of the Whole30, however, adamantly claim it is not a diet. Even though participants are advised to “cut out all the psychologically unhealthy, hormone-unbalancing, gut-disrupting, inflammatory food groups for a full 30 days” (including legumes, dairy, all grains, sugar, MSG, and additives like carrageenan), followers are encouraged to avoid the scale and focus on learning how food makes them feel rather than how much weight they gain or lose.

But our culture is still hungry for weight loss. The possibility of losing weight ahead of her sister’s wedding was “the deciding factor” for my friend Lucy (name changed for privacy), who read the entire Whole30 book cover to cover, and fought her “sugar dragon” for 30 days in adherence to the Whole30 protocol (only to eat M&M’s on day 31, she admits).

“Whole30 focuses on foods in their whole forms which is positive for people who are learning how to incorporate more unprocessed foods in their diet,” Allison Knott, registered dietitian and Friedman alum (N12) explains. “However, the elimination of certain groups of foods like beans/legumes and grains may have negative health implications if continued over the long-term.”

Diets like these trick consumers into thinking they are forming a healthier relationship with food. Though weight loss is de-emphasized, a trio of restriction, fear, and control are in the driver’s seat and could potentially steer dieters toward a downward, disordered-eating spiral.

I still think 2017 is the year of the non-diet, but before we get there we need to unmask the Whole30 and call it what it is: an unsustainable, unhealthy, fad diet.

1: It is focused on “can” and “cannot”

The Whole30 targets perfectly nutritious foods for most people (grains, beans and legumes, and dairy) as foods to avoid entirely, relegating them to the same level of value as boxed mac and cheese, frozen pizza, and Kool-Aid. And most bodies are perfectly capable of handling these foods. They provide a convenient, affordable, and satisfying means of getting calcium, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and nutrient-dense protein. The Whole30 eliminates almost all the plant-based protein options for vegans and vegetarians. While the point of eliminating these foods, creators Hartwig and Hartwig explain, is to reduce inflammation and improve gut health, nowhere in the book or website do they provide scientific studies that show removing grains, beans and dairy does this for most people. But we’ll get to that later.

The Whole30 also instructs that participants not eat any added sugar or sweeteners (real or artificial), MSG (monosodium glutamate, a flavor enhancer that has been weakly linked to brain and nervous system disruption), or carrageenan (a thickener derived from seaweed and is plentiful in the world of nut milks and frozen desserts; conflicting evidence has both suggested and refuted the possibility that it is associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases), sulfites (like those in wine), or alcohol. Not even a lick, as they are very clear to explain, or you must start the entire 30-day journey from the beginning once more.

“I couldn’t go longer than 30 days without a hit of chocolate,” Lucy told me, explaining why she was dedicated to following the program exactly.

Why take issue with focusing on “good” and “bad,” “can” and “cannot” foods? As soon as a moral value is assigned, the potential for establishing a normal relationship to food and eating is disrupted. “The diet encourages following the restrictive pattern for a solid 30 days. That means if there is a single slip-up, as in you eat peanut butter (for example), then you must start over. I consider this to be a punishment which does not lend itself to developing a healthy relationship with food and may backfire, especially for individuals struggling with underlying disordered eating patterns,” Knott argues.

How will a person feel on day 31, adding brown rice alongside their salmon and spinach salad after having restricted it for a month? Likely not neutral. Restrictive dietary patterns tend to lead to overconsumption down the road, and it is not uncommon for people to fall back in to old habits, like my friend Lucy. “People often do several Whole30 repetitions to reinforce healthier eating habits,” she explained.

Knott relates the diet to other time-bound, trendy cleanses. “There’s little science to support the need for a “cleansing diet,” she says. “Unless there is a food intolerance, allergy, or other medical reason for eliminating food groups then it’s best to learn how to incorporate a balance of foods in the diet in a sustainable, individualized way.”

While no one is arguing that consuming less sugar, MSG and alcohol are unsound health goals, making the message one of hard-and-fast, black-and-white, “absolutely don’t go near or even think about touching that” is an unsustainable, unhealthy, and inflexible way to relate to food for a lifetime.

2: It requires a lot of brainpower

After eight years of existence, the Whole30 now comes with a pretty widespread social-media support system. There is plenty of research to back up social support in any major lifestyle change as a major key to success. Thanks to this, more people than ever before (like my friend Lucy, who participated alongside her engaged sister) can make it through the 30 days without “failing.”

But the Whole30 turns the concept of moderation and balance on its head. Perfection is necessary and preparation is key. Having an endless supply of chopped vegetables, stocks for soups, meat, and eggs by the pound and meals planned and prepared for the week, if not longer, is pretty much required if you don’t want to make a mistake and start over. The Whole30 discourages between-meal snacking, (why?) and cutting out sugar, grains, and dairy eliminates many grab-and-go emergency options that come in handy on busy days. So, dieters better be ready when hunger hits.

Should the average Joe looking to improve his nutrition need to scour the internet for “compliant” recipes and plan every meal of every day in advance? While the Whole30 may help those unfamiliar with cooking wholesome, unprocessed meals at home jumpstart a healthy habit, learning about cooking, especially for beginners, should be flexible. It doesn’t have to come with a rule book. In fact, I think that’s inviting entirely too much brain power that could be used in so many other unique and fulfilling ways to be spent thinking, worrying, and obsessing about food. Food is important, but it is only one facet of wellness. The Whole30 seems to brush aside the intractable and significant influence of stress in favor of a “perfect” diet, which may or may not be nutritionally adequate, anyway.

The language used by Whole30 creators to rationalize the rigidity of the diet could make anyone feel like a chastised puppy in the corner. “It’s not hard,” they say, and then proceed to compare its difficulty to losing a child or a parent. Okay, sure, compared to a major life stressor, altering one’s diet is a walk in the park. But changing habits is hard work that requires mental energy every single day. Eating, and choosing what to eat, is a constant battle for many people and it doesn’t have to be. Life is hard enough without diet rules. The last thing anyone needs is to transform a natural and fulfilling component of it (read: food) into a mental war zone with contrived rules and harsh consequences.

3: It is elitist

When was the last time you overheard a stranger complain about healthy eating being expensive? Most likely, the protester was envisioning a diet akin to the Whole30. Grass-fed beef, free-range chicken, clarified butter, organic produce…no dry staples like beans, rice or peanut butter. Healthy eating does not exist on a pedestal. It does not have to be expensive, but it certainly can be depending on where you choose to (or can) shop. Let’s set a few things straight: You don’t need grass-fed gelatin powder in your smoothies to be healthy. You don’t need organic coconut oil to be healthy. You don’t need exotic fruits and free-range eggs to be healthy. Maybe these foods mean more than just nutrition, signifying important changes to be made within our food system. But it terms of nutrition, sometimes the best a person can do for himself and his family is buy conventional produce, whole grains in bulk, and Perdue chicken breast on sale because otherwise they would be running to the drive thru or microwaving a packet of ramen noodles for dinner. A diet like the Whole30, which emphasizes foods of the “highest quality,” does nothing more than shame and isolate those who can’t sustain the standard it imposes, further cementing their belief that healthy eating is unattainable.

4: It is socially isolating

Imagine with me: I am participating in the Whole30 and doing great for the first week eating fully compliant meals. Then comes the weekend, and “oh no” it’s a football weekend and all I want to do is relax with my friends like I love to do. For me, that typically involves a beer or two, shared appetizers (even some carrots and celery!) and lots of laughs. The Whole30 creators would likely laugh in my face and tell me to suck it up for my own good and just munch on the veggies and maybe some meatballs. (“But are those grass-fed and did you use jarred sauce to make them? I bet there’s a gram of sugar hiding in there somewhere.”)

But it is just a month—certainly anyone can abstain from these type of events for a mere 30 days (remember, “it’s not hard”)—but then what? Do you just return to your normal patterns? Or do you, more likely, go back to them feeling so cheated from a month of restraint that you drink and eat so much more than you might have if you’d maintained a sense of moderation?

Of course, there are people comfortable with declining the food-centric aspect of social life, for whom turning down a glass of wine with cheese in favor of seltzer and crudités is no big deal. And perhaps our social events have become a bit too food centric, anyway. Either way, using food rules to isolate one’s self from friends and family sounds an awful lot like the pathway to an eating disorder, and the sense of deprivation most people likely feel in these situations can snowball into chronic stress that overshadows any short-term, nutrition-related “win.”

Although, maybe we should get all our friends to drink seltzer water and eat crudités at football games.

5: It is not scientifically sound

Most of The Whole30’s success has come from word of mouth, stories, and endorsements from those who successfully made it through the program and felt “better” afterwards. The website, dismayingly, does not house a single citation or study referenced in creation of the diet.

It’s important to note that the Whole30 did not exist 20 years ago. The Whole30 is not a pattern of eating that is replicated in any society on earth, and it doesn’t seem to be based off any research suggesting that it is indeed a superior choice. At the end of the day, this is a business, created by Sports Nutritionists (a credential anyone can get by taking an online test, regardless of one’s background in nutrition—which neither of them has) part of the multi-billion-dollar diet industry. Pinpointing three major food groups as causing inflammation and hormonal imbalance is quite an extreme statement to make without any research to back it up.

What does the science actually show? Knott, who counsels clients in her Tennessee-based private practice reminds us that, “consuming a plant-based diet, including grains and beans/legumes, is known to contribute to a lower risk for chronic disease like heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Grains and beans/legumes are a source of fiber, protein, and B vitamins such as folate. They’re also a source of phytochemicals which may play a role in cancer prevention.”

The Whole30 proposes eliminating grains because they contain phytates, plant chemicals that reduce the absorbability of nutrients like magnesium and zinc in our bodies. While it’s true that both grains and legumes contain phytates, so do certain nuts and some vegetables allowed on the diet, like almonds. It is possible to reduce the amount of phytates in an eaten food by soaking, sprouting, or fermenting grains and legumes, but research from within the last 20 years suggests that phytates may actually play a key role as antioxidants. In a diverse and balanced diet, phytates in foods like grains and legumes do not present a major micronutrient threat. Further, new findings from Tufts scientists provide more evidence that whole grains in particular improve immune and inflammatory markers related to the microbiome.

Legumes in the Whole30 are eliminated because some of their carbohydrates aren’t as well-digested and absorbed in the small intestine. Some people are highly sensitive to these types of carbohydrates, and may experience severe digestive irritation like excessive gas, bloating, constipation, etc. Strategies such as the FODMAP approach are used with these folks under professional supervision to ensure they continue to get high-quality, well-tolerated fiber in their diets, and only eliminate those foods which cause distress. For others, elimination of these types of carbohydrates is unsound. Undigested fibers like those in legumes are also known as prebiotics, and help to feed the healthy bacteria in our gut. Eliminating this beneficial food group to improve gut health goes directly against the growing base of scientific evidence surrounding the microbiota.

Dairy, for those without an allergy or intolerance, has been shown to provide many benefits when incorporated into a balanced and varied diet, including weight stabilization and blood sugar control. The diet also fails to recognize the important health benefits associated with fermented dairy products like yogurt.

In terms of the diet’s long-term sustainability, Knott adds, “There’s plenty of research to support that restrictive diets fail. Many who adopt this way of eating will likely lose weight only to see it return after the diet ends.”

Let’s not forget its few redeeming qualities

For everything wrong with the Whole30, there are a few aspects of the diet that should stick. The concept of getting more in touch with food beyond a label, reducing added sugars, and alcohol is a good one and something that everyone should be encouraged to do. Focusing on cooking more from scratch, relying less on processed foods, and learning about how food influences your mood and energy levels are habits everyone should work to incorporate into a healthy life.

Knott agrees, adding, “I do like that the diet emphasizes the importance of not weighing yourself. We know that weight is a minor piece to the puzzle and other metrics are more appropriate for measuring health such as fitness, lean muscle mass, and biometric screenings.”

Improving the nutritional quality of your diet should not eliminate whole food groups like dairy, grains, and legumes. It should not have a time stamp on its end date, and rather, should be a lifelong journey focusing on flexibility, moderation, and balance. Lower your intake of processed foods, sugars, and alcohol and increase the variety of whole foods. Et voilà! A healthy diet that won’t yell at you for screwing up.

—–

Thanks to Allison Knott MS, RDN, LDN for contributing expertise. Knott is a private practice dietitian and owner of ANEWtrition, LLC based in Tennessee. She graduated from the Nutrition Communications program at Friedman in 2012.

 

Hannah Meier is a second-year, part-time Nutrition Interventions, Communication & Behavior Change student and registered dietitian interested in learning more about non-diet approaches to wellness. She aspires to make proper nutrition a simple, accessible and fulfilling part of life for people in all walks of life. You can find her on Instagram documenting food, fitness and fun @abalancepaceRD, as well as on her (budding) blog of the same title: http://www.abalancedpace.wordpress.com

Timing of your Meals–Does it Matter?

by Yifan Xia

How would you feel if you were told to not have dinner for the rest of your life? Skipping dinner every day might sound shocking to most of us, but it was once a very common practice in ancient China in the Han Dynasty. In fact, even today Buddhism and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) promote this practice as a healthier choice than eating three meals per day. But does this practice have roots in science? Of course, controversy exists around this topic, but one thing that we can be certain of today is that the timing of our meals can have a much greater impact on our health than we originally thought.

Researchers investigating the circadian system (internal biological clock) have started looking at the effects of mealtime on our health. Surprisingly, preliminary evidence seems to support the claims of Buddhism and TCM, indicating that eating meals earlier in the day might help promote weight loss and reduce the risk of chronic disease.

What are circadian rhythms and the circadian system?

Circadian rhythms are changes in the body that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle in response to external cues such as light and darkness. Our circadian system, or internal biological clock, drives circadian rhythms and prepares us to function according to a 24-hour daily cycle, both physically and mentally.

Why do they matter to our health?

Our internal biological clock is involved in almost every aspect of our daily lives: it influences our sleep-and-wake cycle, determines when we feel most energetic or calm, and when we want to eat.

These days people don’t always rely on their biological clocks to tell them when to eat, and there are many distractions in the environment that can influence mealtime. We typically think how many calories we eat—and what we eat—are the major contributors to our weight and health, but researchers have found that eating at inappropriate times can disrupt the internal biological clock, harm metabolism, and increase the risk of obesity and chronic disease.

What does the research say?

Although currently the body of research evidence for this area is relatively small, there are several human studies worth highlighting. One randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study, conducted by Jakubowicz, D., et al and published in 2013, compared effects of two isocaloric weight loss diets on 93 obese/overweight women with metabolic syndrome. After 12 weeks, the group with higher caloric intake during breakfast showed greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction, as well as significantly greater decrease in fasting glucose and insulin level, than the group with higher caloric intake during dinner. Another study published in the same year with 420 participants noted that a 20-week weight-loss treatment was significantly more effective for early lunch eaters than late lunch eaters. In 2015, a randomized, cross-over trial, conducted in 32 women and published in International Journal of Obesity, showed that late eating pattern resulted in a significant decrease in pre-meal resting-energy expenditure, lower pre-meal utilization of carbohydrates, and decreased glucose tolerance, confirming the differential effects of meal timing on metabolic health. However, few studies were identified reporting negative findings, probably due to the fact that this is an emerging field and more research is needed to establish a solid relationship.

 So when should we eat? Is there a perfect mealtime schedule for everyone?

“There are so many factors that influence which meal schedules may be suitable for an individual (including biological and environmental) that I cannot give a universal recommendation,” says Gregory Potter, a PhD candidate in the Leeds Institute for Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT) laboratory at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom and lead author on the lab’s recent paper reviewing evidence of nutrition and the circadian systems, published in The British Journal of Nutrition in 2016. Potter also comments that regular mealtime seems to be more important than sticking to the same schedule as everyone else: “There is evidence that consistent meal patterns are likely to be superior to variable ones and, with everything else kept constant, it does appear that consuming a higher proportion of daily energy intake earlier in the waking day may lead to a lower energy balance and therefore body mass.”

Aleix Ribas-Latre, a PhD candidate at the Center for Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases at the University of Texas Health Science Center and lead author on another review paper investigating the interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian systems, published in Molecular Metabolism in 2016, also agrees: “To find the appropriate meal time has to be something totally personalized, although [it] should not present [too] much difference.” Aleix especially noted that people who are born with a tendency to rise late, eat late, and go to bed late (“night owls” versus “early birds”) are more likely to be at risk for metabolic disease.

Do we have to eat three meals a day?

How many meals do you usually have? In fact, how much food makes a meal and how much is a snack? There is no universal definition, which makes these difficult questions to answer.

“To maintain a healthy attitude towards food, I think it is important to avoid being too rigid with eating habits … I do think consistency is important as more variable eating patterns may have adverse effects on metabolism,” says Potter. “Although there is evidence that time-of-day-restricted feeding (where food availability is restricted to but a few hours each day) has many beneficial effects on health in other animals such as mice, it is as yet unclear if this is true in humans. I’d also add that periodic fasting (going for one 24 hour period each week without energy containing foods and drinks) can confer health benefits for many individuals,” Potter comments.

[See Hannah Meier’s recent article on intermittent fasting for more.]

Based on their research, Ribais-Latre and his lab have a different opinion. “We should eat something every 3-4 hours (without counting 8 hours at night). Many people complain about that but then consume a huge percentage of calories during lunch or even worse at night, because they are very hungry. Eating a healthy snack prevents us [from] eating too [many] calories at once.” He suggests what he considers a healthier mealtime schedule:

–          6:00 am  Breakfast (30% total calories)

–          9:30 am  Healthy snack (10%)

–          1:00 pm  Lunch (35%)

–          4:30 pm  Healthy snack (10%)

–          8:00 pm  Dinner (15%)

What if you are a shift worker or your work requires you to travel across time zones a lot? Ribais-Latre’s advice is “not to impair more their lifestyle… at least it would be great if they are able to do exercise, eat healthy, sleep a good amount of hours.”

What does Traditional Chinese Medicine say?

There are historical reasons behind the no-dinner practice in ancient China in the Han Dynasty. First, food was not always available. Second, electricity hadn’t been invented, so people usually rested after sunset and they didn’t need much energy at what we now consider “dinner time.”

However, there are also health reasons behind this practice. In TCM theory, our internal clock has an intimate relationship with our organs. Each organ has its “time” for optimal performance, and we can reap many health benefits by following this clock. For example, TCM considers 1:00 am – 3:00 am the time of “Liver”. The theory says that is when the body should be in deep sleep so that the liver can help to rid toxins from our body and make fresh blood. Disruption at this time, such as staying up until 2:00 am, might affect the liver’s ability to dispel toxins, leading to many health problems, according to the theory.

Many Western researchers do not seem to be familiar with the TCM theory. When asked about the practice of skipping dinner, Potter comments, “I think that skipping dinner can be a perfectly healthy practice in some circumstances; in others, however, it may be ill advised if, for example, the individual subsequently has difficulty achieving consolidated sleep.”

On the flip side, Ribais-Latre says that “skipping a meal is not good at all. We should not eat more calories than those we need to [live], and in addition, the quality of these calories should be high… If you can split those calories [to] 5 times a day instead of three, I think this is healthier.”

Even though there is no universal agreement on mealtime, the tradition of “skipping dinner” did come back into style several years ago in China as a healthier way of losing weight, and was quite popular among Chinese college women. Yan, a sophomore from Shanghai and a friend of mine, said that she tried the method for six months but is now back to the three-meal pattern. “The first couple of days were tough, but after that, it was much easier and I felt my body was cleaner and lighter… I did lose weight, but that’s not the main goal anymore… I got up early every day feeling energetic. Maybe it’s because I only ate some fruits in the afternoon, I usually felt sleepy early and went to bed early, which made it easier to get up early the next day with enough sleep… I’m eating three meals now, but only small portions at dinner, and I think I will continue this practice for my health.”

So what’s the take-away?

Mealtime does seem to matter. But exactly how, why, and what we can do to improve our health remains a mystery. Researchers are now looking into the concept of “chrono-nutritional therapy,” or using mealtime planning to help people with obesity or other chronic diseases. When we resolve this mystery, the question of “When do you eat?” will not just be small talk, but perhaps a key to better health.

Yifan Xia is a second-year student studying Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change. She loves reading, traveling, street dancing, trying out new restaurants with friends in Boston, and watching Japanese animations.

 

 

Fall Flavors and Balanced Bites: Easy, Tasty, and Flexible Recipes for your Thanksgiving Repertoire

by Hannah Meier, RD, LDN

 For many, Thanksgiving is a time to take a step back and enjoy the little things–not least of which are family, friends, and food. But Thanksgiving also falls at a high time of stress for many students (and professors alike). Take advantage of the nostalgia that this season brings, and embrace your life as it is right now–how cool is it that you GET to be stressed out by your finals at the only nutrition school of its kind in the country? Okay…maybe that’s a stretch, but I know you will at least enjoy these recipes as simple and creative ways to squeeze in some Holiday cheer. And because I love finding tasty ways to enhance the nutritional value of any dish (without, of course, compromising taste!), all of these recipes are those I’ve developed or modified from their original versions to not only provide positive Holiday vibes, but also powerful nutritional moxie.

With the dawn of the 11th month of the year comes Thanksgiving. (Really, one could argue that the feast-filled festivities kick off with the first bite of pumpkin spice whatever, which this year happened to be August 29th when Dunkin Donuts debuted its sweetly spicy treats.) If you listen closely, you might be able to hear American foodies across the country .

Thanksgiving in America has long been associated with a bountiful table of rich and delicious food, prepared with care and shared among close friends and family. As graduate students in Boston, often far from home, harnessing anything reminiscent of warm thanksgiving dinners of years past can bring some peace to the hectic pace of school and work life.

But of course, as students with limited budgets, thinly stretched time, and perhaps a particular dietary preference or two (I see AND appreciate you, vegans!), it can seem like preparing a traditional Thanksgiving feast often isn’t in the cards. Think again! Get inspired with the following recipes that require just a few seasonal and nutritious ingredients, everyday kitchen tools, and easy preparation methods and savor the season as a thrifty, well-nourished omnivore or herbivore. Rest assured that the seasonal ingredients in these recipes provide meaningful nutritional benefits and come together in balanced combinations of nutrient-dense carbohydrates, cardio-protective fats, and lean proteins. Most importantly, they are absolutely delicious and worthy of being shared with your favorite people.

Appetizers & Finger Foods

Lox and Cracker Bites

Makes about 24 “Bites”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A play on the classic cream cheese, capers, and lox combination, these savory snacks can be pulled together in no time. Compared to more traditional cheese and sausage on crackers, the smoked salmon here offers anti-inflammatory fats and is less of a saturated fat bomb for a similar amount of protein. Look for whole grain crackers to round out the dish with filling fiber.

Ingredients

  • One 4-oz package of smoked salmon, sliced into thin strips
  • Plain strained (think Greek or Icelandic) yogurt—I like the consistency of Siggi’s in this recipe
  • Capers
  • Whole grain crackers (I like Mary’s Gone Crackers Rye)
  • Fresh dill (optional)
  • Cracked black pepper (optional)

Instructions

  1. Lay out about 24 crackers (you may need less or more depending on the type of cracker you use).
  2. Spread about 1 tablespoon of yogurt on each cracker. Top the crackers with a few capers, one or two slices of smoked salmon, and a pinch of fresh dill (optional).

Sprinkle black pepper over the crackers and serve.

 

Tahini Stuffed Dates (vegan)

Makes 25 dates

Photo Sourced via Pinterest (baconveggie.blogspot.ca)

Photo Sourced via Pinterest (baconveggie.blogspot.ca)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A sweet-and-savory combination, stuffed dates are another great finger-food option to bring to whatever Thanksgiving celebration you find yourself attending this season. Super simple to prepare, the dates pack their sweetness into a portable, fiber-full package that is a perfect complement to the tangy tahini filling and crunchy pistachio topping. Made from sesame seeds, the tahini brings a satisfying dose of unsaturated fats and protein that helps to balance out the sugary dates.

Ingredients

  • 25 Medjool dates, pitted
  • ½ cup of tahini
  • 25 shelled pistachios for topping

Instructions

  1. If not already pitted, remove the pit from 25 dates and lay on flat surface.
  2. Peel open or slice dates down the middle, forming a “boat” for filling.
  3. Stuff each date with 1 teaspoon of tahini and top with one whole, shelled pistachio.
  4. Enjoy!

 

Side Dishes

Cauliflower and Celery Root Mash (vegan)

Inspired by Gourmande in the Kitchen

Makes 4-6 servings

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is nothing wrong with potatoes, but why not try bringing something unique to the table this year? Celery root, also known as celeriac and knob celery, is in peak season during October and November. Though it is not the most handsome of vegetables, it can be eaten raw and tastes like a refreshing cross between celery and fresh parsley. When cooked, its flavor mellows to an almost nutty flavor. The combination of cauliflower and celery root in this mash brings a creamy alternative to potatoes in a dish with far less concentrated starchy carbohydrates per serving.

Ingredients

  • 1 medium celery root, peeled and cut into ½ inch cubes
  • 1 small head (about 16 ounces) cauliflower, cut into small florets
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • Pepper to taste

Instructions

  1. Steam the celery root and cauliflower in a microwavable steamer or in a steamer basket over boiling water.
  2. Transfer the cooked celery root and cauliflower to a tall blender or food processor (you may need to work in batches). Add oil and salt and blend/process until smooth. Add 1-2 tablespoons of steaming liquid to loosen the puree if needed.
  3. Season with additional salt and pepper to taste.

 

Main Course

Roasted Turkey

Servings vary depending on size of bird

Adapted from Food Network Magazine

Photo Credit: http://www.bhg.com

Photo Credit: http://www.bhg.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can you get more traditional than a roasted turkey at Thanksgiving? Probably not. Though most Thanksgiving feasts are not famous for their stellar health profile, placing oven-roasted turkey at the center of the dinner table is actually a nutritionally sound tradition. According to the USDA Nutrient Database, one 3 ounce serving of light meat turkey (without the skin) contains 125 calories, 2 grams of fat, and 26 grams of protein (plain meat of course does not provide any dietary carbohydrates but that’s before you smother it with cranberry sauce or gravy). Dark meat turkey gets a bad rap, but actually only contains 3 more grams of fat per serving with slightly less protein and about 25 more calories. Dark meat tends to contain a higher concentration of vitamins B-6, B-12, niacin, choline, selenium, and zinc, though the light meat is also a good source. Compared to other animal meats, roasted turkey is generally a lean choice that is low in saturated fat (animal-based saturated fats seem to consistently have the worst effect on cardiovascular disease markers) and a good source of easily digested protein. In order to get the most out of your turkey dish and avoid post-feast “meat sweats,” try to keep your portion to about a size of a deck of cards, especially if you’re filling your plate with other protein-rich dishes.

Ingredients

  • A 10- to 12-pound turkey
  • Salt and pepper (or salt-free seasoning such as Mrs. Dash)
  • Onions, carrots, and apples, all chopped into large bite-size pieces
  • Fresh herbs like sage, rosemary, and thyme (per personal preference)
  • Olive oil

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 325°F .
  2. If not already removed, pull neck, liver, and giblets out of cavity. Save giblets for gravy if desired.
  3. Dry turkey with paper towels, then season inside and out with salt and pepper. Try using salt-free seasoning like Mrs. Dash to reduce sodium content for sensitive individuals.
  4. Fill turkey with chopped vegetables and apples, as well as fresh herbs of choice.
  5. Place breast-side up (legs on the bottom) in a roasting pan and brush with olive oil. Tent with foil and roast for 2 hours (add an extra 15 minutes per pound for larger birds).
  6. Remove foil, baste with more oil and turn up oven to 425 degrees. Roast for another hour or so until the meat at the thigh registers 165 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 15 seconds.

 

Cranberry, Lentil and Wild Rice Stuffed Acorn Squash (vegan)

Makes 4 Stuffed Squash Halves

Photo Credit: http://www.lentils.ca

Photo Credit: http://www.lentils.ca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stuffing acorn squashes is an easy way to make it look like you can get fancy in the kitchen (but look at you, you can!) This time of year, acorn squash is plentiful at the grocery store and market, and is often on sale. If you can’t find or don’t like acorn squash, you can use a kabocha or small butternut squash instead. Winter squash, with its deep orange and yellow color, is bursting with phytochemicals, and when roasted takes on a caramelized flavor that makes it easy to forget how richly fibrous the flesh is. Did you know you can eat the squash skin? Just be sure to wash it well before cooking!

Wild rice, actually a seed not a grain, joins forces with lentils to provide a complete amino acid profile and round out the entrée as one that is entirely satisfying. Dried cranberries balance out the texture of each bite and provide irresistible jewels of tart sweetness. Enjoy this plant-based acorn squash dish as a vegan entrée or on the side of any traditional Turkey Day feast.

Ingredients

  • ½ cup uncooked wild rice
  • ¼ cup dried green or brown lentils
  • 2 cups vegetable broth or water
  • 1 tablespoon olive oil
  • 1 medium onion, diced
  • 1 garlic clove, minced
  • ½ cup dried cranberries (unsweetened, if you can find them)
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Spices (optional): ½ teaspoon rubbed sage and  ½ teaspoon dried thyme

  • 2 medium acorn squashes, cut in half and seeds removed.

Instructions

  1. In a medium saucepan, large skillet, or rice cooker, combine rice, lentils, and vegetable broth or water. If cooking in skillet or saucepan, bring liquid to a boil. Cover and reduce heat to low and simmer until rice and lentils are cooked, about 50 minutes. If cooking in rice cooker, use brown rice setting and let it do its thing.
  2. While the rice and lentils cook, preheat the oven to 400°F. Cover baking sheet with aluminum foil, lightly coat foil with oil or non-stick spray, and place squash halves cut side down. Bake until tender, about 30-35 minutes.
  3. Coat the bottom of a large skillet with olive oil and cook onion over medium-low heat. Add sage and thyme if using and cook, stirring occasionally, until onion softens and just begins to caramelize, about 15 minutes. Add garlic and cook one minute more.
  4. Add wild rice and lentil mixture to skillet. Add cranberries, and raise heat to medium-high. Cook 1-2 minutes, until mixture is heated through. Remove from heat and season with salt and pepper.
  5. To serve, scoop wild rice, lentil, and cranberry mixture into each squash half and enjoy!

Hannah Meier is a second-semester Nutrition Interventions, Communications and Behavior Change student and not-so-closet foodie. She loves to come up with better-for-your-body substitutions to traditional recipes that don’t sacrifice flavor or appeal. This year, she is thankful for a supportive and trusting family, and beautiful fall weather in New England.